74e THOREAU SOCIETY BULLETIN The Thoreau Society, Inc., is an informal gathering of students and followers of Henry David Thoreau. Henry Beetle Hough, Edgartown, Mass., President; Robert Needham, Concord, Mass., Vice-President; and /Jalter Harding, State University, Geneseo, N. Y. 14454-, Secretary-Treasurer. Annual membership, 32.00; life member- ship, $50.00. Address communications to the secretary. BULLETIN ONE HUNDRED SEVEN ANNUAL MEETING - CONCORD - JULY 12, 1969 The 1969 Annual Meeting of The Thoreau Society will be held on Saturday, July 12, 1969, in the First Parish Meetinghouse in Concord, Mass. A coffee hour will begin at 9:30 A.M. The business meeting will be called to order by President Henry Beetle Hough at 10:20. The first address will be a reading of a hitherto unpublished essay by Thoreau on "Huckleberries," edited by the late Professor Leo Stoller; followed by the President's address on "Thoreau in Today's Sun." A luncheon will be served at 12:30. Tickets are $2.25. Reservations must be accompanied by a check made out to The Thoreau Society and mailed to Mrs . Loyd Rathoun, 125 Brister's Hill Road, Concord , Mass. 01742. Deadline for reservations is Tues - day. July 8 . At 2:00 Mrs. Edmund Fenn will lead a walk in the area adjacent to Bateman's Pond. There will be special exhibits in the Concord Free Public Library. Late afternoon optional activities will include strolls in balden Pond Reservation and Sleepy Hol- low Cemetery, or a riding tour to Thoreau' s birth- place site, the "Civil Disobedience" jail site, the pencil factory site, and the place where he died. There will be an exhibition at the Meeting- house of the solicited "Cairn" photographs. On exhibit at The Thoreau Lyceum will be Anton Kovar's collection of different editions of balden , and water colors by Joseph O'Brien interpreting Thoreau 1 s philosophy. At 6:00 a box supper will be served on the back lawn of The Thoreau Lyceum, 156 Belknap Street. Reservations accompanied by a check for $1.50 made out to the Curator, Mrs. Thomas rt. McGrath, 156 Belknap Street, Concord, Mass. 01742 in advance. SPRING, 1969 At 8:00 stereoptican slides made from the famous Gleason photographs of Concord and Thoreau' s Nature will be projected in the Meetinghouse Hall and Leonard Kleinfeld's slides based on photographs taken by Dr. Edward Bigelow of the St. Nicholas Magazine. Installation of the new President will conclude the program. A great many members who regularly attend the annual meeting look forward to the flower arrange- ments. They are done by Miss Mary Gail Fenn who lives in Concord and who is as familiar with Thoreau' s description of his walks as she is with the actual places themselves. A kindergarten teacher, each year she gently converts her little charges into ardent nature lovers. The flower arrangements she makes for the Society are authentic reproductions in miniature of Concord woods. Each year's arrangement is different; a sandy banking with turtle eggs, a bit of swamp with water plants, a fern bog with bird's nest, and this year a study of lichens and fungi. Soon after the annual meeting she begins planning for the following year. As a result, the long and careful preparation produces a bit of nature which looks as though it had been transported just as it grew in Thoreau' s beloved woods. The Annual Photography Contest is to be devoted to pictures of the cairn at Walden Pond taken over the years. Special attention will be paid to those which (l) are particularly early views of the cairn; (2) those which are precisely dated pictures of the cairn; and (3) those which show well known people visiting the cairn. Photographs to be entered into this contest should be sent to Mr. Robert Needham 11 balden Terrace Concord, Massachusetts 01742 to arrive there before July 1. It is to be hoped Reprinted with the permission of Adcox Associates, Inc. that members submitting such photographs will then permit them to be deposited permanently in the Thor- eau Society Archives at the Concord Free Public Library. The photographs will be judged at the annual meeting. The Nominating Committee (Mrs. Herbert Hosmer, Mr. Robert *ild, and Mr. Roland Robbins, Chairman) have submitted the following slate of officers for election at the annual meeting: President: Charles Anderson, Baltimore, Md. Pres. -Elect: Albert /I. Bussewitz, Milton, Mass. Vice Pres.: Rooert Needham, Concord, Mass. Sec.-Treas.: Walter Harding, Geneseo, N. Y. All the above for terms of one year; members of the Executive Committee for three-year terms: Brooks Atkinson, Durham, N. Y. Leonard KLeinfeld, Forest Hills, N. Y. Additional nominations may be made from the floor at the annual meeting. THOREAU'S JULY 16, 1860 LETTER TO CHARLES SUMNER: AN ADDENDUM AND CORRECTION by Douglass Noverr Harding and Bode note that Thoreau's July 16, I860 letter to Charles Sumner was "previously unpubli shed . " ( The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau. p. 586.) While it is true that the entire text of the letter had never been printed before then, the second and third paragraphs did appear earlier in an "Appendix" to Charles Sumner's The Barbarism of Slavery — a speech given in the Senate on June A, I860, and printed in full in the New York Herald (June 5-6, I860), in the weekly edition of the New York Tribune, ana published by the thousands and mailed by Sumner and his friends to people and friends in the North and West. (David Donald, Charles Sumner and the Coming of the Civil .■far. I960, pp. 358-363.) Thoreau obviously received a personal copy of the pamphlet from Sumner, and the letter Thoreau sent to Sumner was .^ust one of hundreds that Sumner received containing praise for what they felt was the truth and uncompromising moral stand of the speech. The second and third paragraphs of the July 16, 1860 letter appeared and are quoted (with punctua- tional inaccuracies and one major substantive omission) in Vol. VI of Charles Sumner His Complete Works. Statesman Edition, 20 vols. (Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1900), pp. 281-82. The "Appendix" of which the Thoreau letter was a part included a Correspondence section in which "brief extracts" were given from letters sent to Sumner. There are 112 separate extracts of letters from persons or groups included; the list begins with John Greenleaf Whittier and Frederick Douglass, with the extract from a letter by "Frank B. Sanborn, teacher and earnest man, afterwards an able journalist." In a descriptive heading to the Thoreau extract, Thoreau is referred to as "author and man of genius." There are major differences in punctuation (from the Harding -Bode text) and the paragraph beginning "It is refreshing to hear some naked truth. ..." is not indented. The omission of one word in paragraph three changes the emphasis of Thoreau's statement (punctuation and omitted word of Harding- Bode text in brackets) : Especially^ , ] I wish to thank you for your speech on the Barbarism of Slavery[ , ] which[,] I hope and suspect[,] commences a new era in the history of our Congress,[;] when questions of national importance have come to be con- sidered [occasionally] from a broadly ethical, and not from a narrowly political point of view alone. The word "occasionally," along with the punctuation of the qualified statement "I hope and suspect," significantly alters the reading and emphasis of this sentence. Thoreau did not have as much faith or optimism in Congress as the "Appendix" reading suggests. I am not sure exactly when this "Appendix" was added to the original speech. Sumner himself edited his .forks in 15 volumes (Boston, 1870-83), and it appears he might have added the "Appendix. " Considering the large number of extracts included and the inaccuracies in Thoreau's letter, one can conclude, I think, that Sumner or whoever tran- scribed the letters was probably careless or uncon- cerned with letter-perfect accuracy. Despite the miner significance of this extract of Thoreau's July 16, I860, letter, the inaccuracies of this text of it should be noted as well as the fact that most of the letter appeared in print before the Harding-Bode text of it. THE OLD CARLISLE ROAD IS STILL THERE by Mary R. Fenn in the midst of our unhappiness in seeing houses springing up where once we looked out over open fields, it is heartwarming to know that Thoreau's oeloved Estabrook Country and the Old Carlisle Road are pretty much as they were in his day. What is even more encouraging, they will remain so, since they now belong to Harvard, thanks to the many individuals, societies including our own, and the Ford Foundation who thought it important enough to pay for its preservation. The Estabrook Country was never a settlement with houses and farms with the exception of the Estabrook place. .-ftien Concord was first settled, its boundaries encompassed six square miles. This was ample acreage for the dozen or so first families, but soon others came, and as the farmers prospered, they needed more land. The Estabrook Country was then acquired and divided among twenty families, with twenty acres each — the so-called twenty-score. It was used largely as summer pastures and woodlots. The stone walls which we see today were piled up. When a limestone deposit was discovered the old paths were widened to accommodate wagons, and stone bridges built across the brooks; the great rocks pulled by ox teams and prized into place with crowbars. These are the same bridges we walk across today. A lime kiln was built to burn the stone used for plastering houses, and we can still see its stone foundation as well as the earthen ramp where wagons were backed up on a higher level and the stone dumped into the kiln. The land is varied, with brooks, swamps, eskers, pools, ledges, and glacial boulders. Cne of these is Indian Rock where Thoreau said the Indians on their seasonal wanderings would have their encamp- ments. Boulder Field, a pasture in his day, is now grown to woods. But the great granite rocks tower- ing above our heads are as imposing to us as they were to him, and we agree with Thoreau that "it would be something to own that pasture with the great rocks in it." Owl's Nest Swamp still has its beds of sphagnum where Thoreau and Charming stepped, wild calla lilies still grow in Calla Swamp, the beautiful rhodora still blooms in spring and the benzoin swamp is filled with yellow blossoms; in the autumn wild apples still hang on old trees, and the ground in places is covered with a miniature forest of lyco- podiums. In the old days every brook had its sawmill, and one of these mills cut the cedar logs for Concord's pencil manufacturing, We can still see its stone foundation with ferns and herb robert growing in the crannies, bloodroot covering the banking above, wild pinks along the path, and gnarled grapevines climbing high into the trees. The people in Thoreau's day went "a-nutting" and "a-berrying." Now the large chestnut trees are gone, and the shade of the woods has made the wild barberries die out. Today nature lovers still walk through the lovely Estabrook woods, so quiet and peaceful, where no one lives but the deer, the racoons, the great blue herons, the wild geese. And we agree as we swing along the road ". . .that old Carlisle one. .that leaves towns behind; where you put off worldly thoughts. . . .Others are called great roads, but this is greater than them all." WALTON AND WALDEN by Thomas Blanding Thoreau's dialogue between the Hermit and Poet which introduces the chapter "Brute Neighbors," in Walden . bears a distinct stylistic resemblance to the dialogues of the Angler, Falconer, and Hunter in Izaak Walton's The Compleat Angler . Thoreau obviously was familiar with Walton's book, for he alludes to the work several times in the "Saturday" chapter of A Week : but in Walden, Thoreau seems to have used The Compleat Angler as a direct model for his dialogue. Thoreau's dia- logue and Walton's book are both about fishing, and Thoreau's diction so closely imitates Walton's that it would be quite difficult to distinguish be- tween the two dialogues were it not for the more philosophical content of Thoreau's. I suspect that Thoreau's Hermit and Poet would be as much at home with their lines cast in one of Walton's English streams as in Thoreau's Musketaquid. J. Lyndon Shanley ( The Making of Walden . Chicago, 1957, p. 80) is probably correct when he suggests that Thoreau intended the dialogue as comic inter- lude to ease the transition from "Higher Laws" to "Brute Neighbors," but the transitional nature of the dialogue becomes more clearly defined if Thoreau was indeed writing in the spirit of The Compleat Angler . The dialogue between the Hermit and the Poet unites the two chapters by incorporat- ing the lofty contemplation of "Higher Laws" with the sensuousness of "Brute Neighbors," reinforcing Walton's observation that angling is a "contempla- tive man's recreation." AN INTRODUCTION TO HENRY THOREAU by Alan Seaburg It took place on a sunny, pleasant summer day late in the 1940' s when I was in my middle teens. My introduction to that man, Henry Thoreau. My brother, one decade older and wiser than me, sug- gested that I accompany him on a visit to Concord the next day. As we had no car, we journeyed by train leaving North Station in Boston in the early forenoon. My brother conducted the conversation on the short ride to Concord, and one of the persons he mentioned was Henry David Thoreau. The man meant nothing to me. My brother talked about his books, his fame for his relationship with nature, and the experiment by balden Pond. That was what most stimulated my curiosity. We walked from the station to the center of town, pausing only to inspect the Public Liorary. After an early lunch in the lovely atmosphere of the Wright Tavern, how disappointed I have been on other visits to discover that meals are no longer served there, we ignored the "rude bridge that arched the flood" and all that that stands for to visit the homes where the Alcotts and the Hawthornes dwelt. Then we stumbled upon the museum maintained by the Antiquarian Society. All this time Thoreau lay snug in my mind. The Antiquarian house with its various period rooms was lovely, but nothing prepared me for the surprise that it contained. Suddenly before me was the reconstructed setting of Henry Thoreau's Walden hut. Compared with the rest of the rooms in the museum, its plainness amazed this boy and instantly made me aware of the simple life Thoreau led. I recall only a bed, a chair, some sort of writing table, candles, and a few books. Although we did not have time to visit Thoreau's pond, I was familiar with the woods and lakes of Maine and could easily picture the rustic location of the hut. The romance in Thoreau's life immediately impressed itself upon me and since then I have always wanted to live as he did. Pity the young man who has not. The only mementoes I retain from this visit are two postcards. One is a portrait of Thoreau, the other a sketch of him sitting at his writing table in the hut at work. These now hang in my study in Vermont. That was the simple beginning of my interest in Thoreau and his philosophy of life. Now I have read most of what he has written and have even published a few articles about him. Yet my later knowledge and acquaintance with Thoreau is pale beside the introduction which remains one of my fondest memories. There is one further aspect to this account. It concerns my brother. One of the events of Thoreau's life that most deeply affects me was his relationship with his brother. I have always understood and appreciated it for I, too, have a brother with whom I am close. Therefore, I have always been able to realize the loss that Henry felt when John died in 1842. This, then, is the legacy of my first visit to Concord: an intro- duction to a man appropriately made by a brother with whom I have grown as close as that man did to his brother. ADDITIONS TO THE THOREAU BIBLIOGRAPHY WH Anderson, Charles. THE FAGIC CIRCLE OF WALDEN. Review. NEW ENGLAND QUARTERLY, Dec. 1968. Arnstein, Felix. "Henry Thoreau, American." SNOWY EGRET, XXVI (Autumn, 1962), 12-19. Basile, Joseph. "Thoreau's Inevitable, Infernal Railroad" in THE ATLANTIC 1967/1968 CONTESTS FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS. Boston: Atlantic Monthly, 1968 pp. 42-42. Eedau, Hugo A dan. CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE: THEORY AND PRACTICE. New York: Pegasus, 1969. 282pp. 57.50 An anthology of essays (including Thoreau's) on the topic, pro and con. By far the best such vol- ume yet and the analysis of Thoreau's essay by Bedau hinself is perhaps the most thoughtful I've yet seen. Bonner, Willard H. "Thoreau's Other Telegraph Fig- ure," AMER. NOTES & QUERIES, VII (March, 1969), 99-100. Burke, William Jeremiah. "Yes, There's Still a Con- cord." MODERN MATURITY, Feb. 1969, pp. 7-9. ■■- re- cent visit to Concord, including the Thoreau sites. Cameron, Kenneth Halter. "Damning National Publicity for Thoreau in 1849," AMER. TRANSCENDS] RT. [Drawer 1G8C, Hartford, Coir..], 11(1969), 18-27. Hitherto unnoticed editorials on Thoreau. . "Thoreau and His Harvard Classmates," AMER. .., Ill (1969), 1-32. Reprint of the 1965 book. . "Thoreau 1 s Walden and Alcott's Vegetarian- isn," AMER.TRANS. UAR., II (1969), 27-28. Canby, Henry Sei&el. "A 3ook Gandhiji Kept at His Bedside. " ?; - '- [Bombay], Nov. 12, 1954. Derleth, August. WALDEN POND: HOI AGE TO THOREAU. With wood engravings by Frank Utpatel. Iovfa City: Prairie Press, 1968. 44pp. r '3.5C. Excerpts from. Derleth' s journals about three visits to Wal- den. As usuual , Derleth has stimulating things to say and the volume is a gen of printing. Douthat, Lou. "She Helped Open Cincinnati Medical Colleges to './omen." CINCINNATI POST & TIMES-SEAR. April 12, 1969. Account of the discovery of an un- published autobiographical US by a ]!rs. Celia Fre- ase which includes a lengthy description of Tho- reau, but with no indication of where she became acquainted with him. Ekirch, Arthur A., Jr. "Transcendental Harmony: Tho- reau" in MAN AND NATURE IN AMERICA. Hew York: Co- lumbia, 1963. pp. 5S-69. Fabre, Michel. "La Desobeissance Civile," EIP.OPE [Paris], XLVII (Jan. 1969), 214-217. Fisher, Aileen & Olive Rabe, WE ALCOTTS. Hew York: leneum, 1968, 278pp. "The story of Louisa M, Al- cott's family as seen through the eyes of 'Max-nee,' mother of Little Honen." The book is ained at a young adult audience and tends to be a bit sugary. Thoreau, quite naturally, appears on a number of pages and is very well presented. Glick, Wendell, ed. THE RECOGNITION OF HENRY DAVID THOREAU. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Mich., 1969. 3£lpp. '8.50. A selection of 45 critical essays on Tho- reau fron I8A8-I966, ranging fron well-known ones such as Emerson's funeral discourse to ones that only the specialist will have been acquainted with. The selection is judicious and representative of both favorable and unfavorable points of view. Brief running comments by Glick are illuminating. A handy survey of Thoreau criticism over the rs. Hanley, Katherine, "WALDEN — Forest Sonata," AMER. Ft., I (1969), 108-110. Honan , John Jr. "Thoreau, the Emblem, and The Heek," A1ER. . , I (1969), 104-108. HOME JOURNAL FCP. THE CULTIVATION OF THE MEMORABLE, THE PROGRESSIVE, AND THE BEAUTIFUL. "A Hew Eng- land Town," reprinted in AMSR.T1 . .,11 (1969), 41. Account of an IS56 visit to Concord with coi 1 on Thoreau. Ives, Charles. THE C NCORD SONATA. Played by John Kirkpatrick. Hew York: Columbia Records, 1969. ! .'3-7192. By far the best recording yet of the "Concord Sonata" (including of course the Thoreau novenent). It lias a brilliance and vibrancy lack- ing in all the others. The jacket has a particular- ly interesting history of the composition of the sonata and explains why and how this version dif- fers from, the earlier ones. Kent, Fhyllida Kent. A STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE OF TKORSAU'S A WEEK CI! THE CONCORD AID MERRIMACK RIVERS. Carleton Univ., 1967. 143pp. M.A. thesis. Available thru University Microfilms for 03. (M-1355). Kleinfeld, Leonard F. "Stones for the Cairn." HEAR YE [Acton, Mass.], Feb. 1969. A play orig- inally performed at a T.S. annual neeting. . "Thoreau Chronology," AMER.TRANS.QUAR., I (1969), 113-117. Reprint of 1950 pamphlet. Klonp, Henry De'.Jitt. THE GAME. Hew York: Pageant, 1967. 398pp. A satirical novel on college Eng- lish departments. One of characters has much to say on Thoreau since he is writing a book en him. Krutch, Josenh VJood. "GBS Enters Heaven (?)" in SATURDAY REVIEW READER HO. 2. New York: Bantam, 1953. pp. 205-211. Shaw and Thoreau converse. MacLachlan, C.H. "The Spiritual Life of Henry D. Thoreau," VEDAHTA AND THE WEST, CXCI (May, 1968), 46-59 and CXCII (July, 1968), 13-32. Reprinted from FRABUDBHA BHARATA for June 1965. . "Vivokananda and Thoreau," VEDAHTA AND THE WEST, CLXXXIII (Nov. 1967), 18-36. Reprinted from PRABUDDHA BHARATA for May, 1967. Magorian, James. "Transcendentalist" in ALMOST NOON. Chicago: Ibis, 1969. Poen on Thoreau, p. 31. llonteiro, George. "Birches in Winter: Notes on Tho- reau and Frost," CLA JOURNAL, XII (Dec. 1968), 129-133. Parke, Fran. "Today's Protestors Carry on Old Bat- tle of Conscience vs. Law." LANCASTER [Pa.] NEW ERA. March 6, 1969. Many comments on Thoreau. Pulos, C.E. " Walden and Emerson's 'The Sphinx," AMER.TRANS.QUAR., I (1969), 7-11. Pyareial. "Thoreau, Tolstoy and Gandhiji," STATES- MAN [Hew Delhi]. Jan. 30-31, 1957. Rao, E. Nageswara. "Thoreau and Gandhi: A Compar- ison." ARYAN PATH, XXXVII (Aug. 1966), 361-364. Reaver, J. Russell. "Thoreau' s Way with Proverbs" AMER.TRANS.QUAR., I (1969), 2-7. Rice, Edwin B. "Wants Another Thoreau to Make the Scene." BUFFALO EVENING NEWS. Feb. 13, 1969. Letter to editor. Riegl, Kurt. "Zun Thoreau-Echo im Spatwerk O'Neills" GEPJIANISCH-ROMANISCHE MONATSSCHRIFT, XVIII (Apr.) 1968), 191-9. Allusions to Thoreau in O'Neill's later plays. Ross, Donald Jr. "Hawthorne and Thoreau on 'Cottage Architecture'," AMER.TRANS.QUAR. I (1969),100 Salt, Henry S. LIFE CF HENRY DAVID THOREAU. New- York: Haskell House, 1968. 208pp. $5.50. A facsimile reprint of the 1896 short version of Salt's great life of Thoreau. In many respects this is still the best of all biographies of Thoreau. Sherwood, Mary P. "Thoreau 1 s Penobscot Indians," THOREAU JOUR. QUART., I (Jan. 15, 1969), 1-13. . "Thoreau Island," THOREAU J0UR.QUAR. I, (Jan. 15, 1969), 20-22. On the recent renaming of an island in the Penobscot for Thoreau. Thoreau, Henry David. A YANKEE IN CANADA, WITH ANTI-SLAVERY AND REFORM PAPERS. New York: Has- kell House, 1968. 09.95. Facsimile reprint of 1892 edition. . ESSAY ON CIVIL DI0S0BEDIENCE. New York: Pyramid Books, 1968. 62pp. "A Little Paperback Classic." . EXCURSIONS. Review. INDEPENDENT, Dec. 3, 1863. Reprinted in AMER.TRANS.QUAR., II (1969), 31. Thoreau, [H.D.] TWO FRAGMENTS FROM THE JOURNALS. Edited, with a preface, by Alexander C. Kern. Wood- engraving by John Roy. Iowa City: Windhover Press, 1968. Boxed, unpaged. Edition limited to 220 cop- ies. y3.80. T w0 unpublished fragments from Tho- reau's journal which shed light on his compositor- ial techniques. And a real typographical gem. Thoreau, Henry David. THE VARIORUM WALDEK AND THE VARIORUM CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE. Edited by Walter Hard- ing. New York: Washington Square Press, 196S. 371 pp. Combined paperback edition. . THE WISDOM OF THOREAU. New York: Pyramid Books, i960. 64pp. Selected quotations from his writings. A "Little Paperback Classic." 35$. Treat, Robert & Betty. "Thoreau and Institutional Christianity." A1ER. TRANS. QUAR., I (1969) ,AA-A7. VanNostrand, A.D. "Thoreau Beside Himself." in EVERYMAN HIS OWN POET. New York: McGraw-Hill, 196S. pp. 92-112. An enlightening discussion of Thoreau 1 s use of metaphor in WALDEN and particular- ly on his ability to, as Emerson says, draw "uni- versal lav; from single fact." Vernet, Laurence. "Actualite de Thoreau," FRANCE AMERIQUE MAGAZINE [Paris], 1968. pp. 9A-93. . "Marcel Proust: Admirateur Imprevu de Tho- reau." EUROPE TParis], XLVII (Janvier, 1969), 217- 22A. Wiener, Harvey S. "To a Fairer World: Thoreau 1 s Last Hours," JOUR. OF HISTORICAL STUDIES, I (Autumn, 1968), 361-365. Wild, Paul H. "Flower Power: a Student's Guide to Pre-Hippie Transcendentalism," ENGLISH JOUR., LVIII (Jan. 1969), 62-68. On teaching WALDEN to high school students as a hippie document. Williams, Eric. D. "Thoreau: Prophet of World Faith" THOREAU JOUR. QUART., I (Jan. 15, 1969), 14-16. Williams, Jonathan. "The Distances to a Friend," in AN EAR IN BARTRAM»S TREE: SELECTED POEMS. Chapel Hill: U.N.C., 1968, p. 30. Poem on Thoreau. Winn, O.Hward. "A Sentence for Thoreau." MIDWEST QUARTERLY, DC (Summer, 1968), 380. A poem. Young, T.D. & Ronald Fine, eds. "Henry David Tho- reau" in AMERICAN LITERATURE: A CRITICAL SURVEY. New York: American Book Co., 1968, pp. 163-212. Reprints Randall Stewart, "The Growth of Thoreau' s Reputation"; Reginald Cook, "Thoreau in Perspec- tive"; Lauriat Lane, "On the Organic Structure of WALDEN"; Sherman Paul, "Resolution at Walden"; & George Hendrick, "The Influence of Thoreau' s 'Civ- il Disobedience' on Gandhi's SATIAGRAHA." We are indebted to the following for information used in this bulletin: A. Butler ,T. Bailey, D.Bernstein, A. Brooks,W.Cummings,R. Chapman, M.Campbell, J. Donovan,R. Epler,D.Finley,M.Fenn,H.Gottschalk,B.Gronewald,G. Heebner ,E .Hunsaker ,C .Hoagland ,D . Kamen-Kaye , S . Kent , L.Kleinfeld,E.Lauritzen,A.Lownes,N.Lehrman,A.Lane, L.Leary,J.Michel,D.McWilliams,M.Meuttman,F.Osb\n-ne, I. Oelgart,R. Patrick ,R. Poland ,R.Robbins,R.P.eady,L. Simon,G.Shedd,A.Seaburg,R.Schaedle,J.Sissons,E.T6ale, S.Thomas,G. Taylor ,C. Tweedy, J.Vickers,M.Wahl ,A.Weit- kamp, H.Wiggins, and A. Williger. Please keep the secretary informed of new Thoreau items as they ap- pear and old ones he has missed,, MORE DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS ON THOREAU With the permission of University Microfilms of Ann Arbor, Michigan, we continue printing herewith reproductions of abstracts of dissertations on Thoreau. The full dissertations are available from University Microfilms at the prices given at the ends of the articles. THOREAU, THE JOURNALIST. (Order No. 67-17,603) William Louis Howarth, Ph.D. University of Virginia, 19G7 Adviser: Professor Floyd Stovall This dissertation, a critical reading of Henry Thoreau's Journal , attempts to prove three propositions (1) "factual" writing is worthy of analysis; (2i Thoreau's Journal has struc- ture; and (3) critics misinterpret Thoreau's post-Walden career. Book One presents the background of Thoreau's Journal. Chapter I defines the journal's status as a literary genre. Journals are communal documents, their authors share ideas of purpose, audience, and narrative rule. While ,c sense of religious vocation shaped early journals, the secular idea of profession controlled later ones. Most literary men wrote journals for professional uses, a few, like Thoreau, kepi them for intrinsic, or vocational, reasons. Chapter II. a history of Thoreau's Journal between 1802 and 1906. gives background on early editions and criticizes editorial policies that shaped the 1906 text. Book Two discusses the "early Journal," 1H37- 1847. Chap- ter I describes the literary exercises and experiments of Thoreau's "workshop"; it also depicts his turn to fuller nar- ration after 1841. Chapter II presents the ambivalence of his early ideas on journalizing, and charts the growttvof his dis- satisfaction with writing for publication. Book Three surveys the -middle Journal," 1H50- 1855. Chapter I describes Thoreau's shift from one major topic, self- analysis, to another, the study "I nature. Chapter II de- picts his resolution of early aesthetic problems, and his gradual acceptance of the Journal .is a satisfying means of literary expression. Book Four covers the "late Journal," 1856-1861. Chapter I portrays Thoreau's shift from the indiscriminate recording of natural data to more interpretive studies of seasonal events. Chapter II presents his final synthesis of aesthetics, science, and philosophy. In his final years he sensed that the Journal was an end in itself, not a field to be reaped; he expressed this faith by leaving the book just as it was. Its order was perfectly organic; In it he had gradually learned how to unite the acts of living and writing. Microfilm $3.30; Xerography $11.50. 253 pages. CIRCLE IMAGERY IN THE PROM nl I MIRSON AND THOREAU FROM NATURK (1H36I TO vVM.MKN (1H54). (Order No. 67-13,837) Richard Carl Tuerk, Ph.D. The Johns Hopkins University, liitiT In this study I examine Images nl , u en prose works of Emerson and Thoreau h former's first book, to Walde n (1H54I, I he piece. I place particular emphasis mi Mini Essays : First Series and on Thoreau's Vv I also nlativr I n \ iii I he major Nature (1836), the Iter's master- -,1 ui's Nature and ■k mi I lie Concord and Merrimack Rivers and Waldr ■ •ill Mr ii h Emerson s s well as husetts," I examine Essays : Second Series and Repp Thoreau's "Service," ''Natural TTisiorv ul Ma.' "Walk to Wachusett," and "Winter Walk." I d the extent to which Thoreau derived his use nl the circle from Emerson. Rather, I emphasize the individual development of the literary technique which each man displays in his finished artistic creations. Emerson usually employs the circle as an adjunct to his philosophy; it helps make his abstract philosophical statements more concrete. For example, he re|X'atedly uses it to support his belief that unity lies at the renter of the multiplicity that man sees around him. Sometimes, he uses it In an attempt to give his works the type of unity thai lie sees In nature. Thus, the circle unifies the universe that he describes in "Circles" ( Essays : First Series) as well as the essay itself. On the other hand, Thoreau's use ol the circle Is usually an end in itself. In his works he cliar.u tenstically transmutes the specific circular shapes and nuitimis that he sees In the world around him into artistic creations. M\ means ul these figures he reshapes the stuff of his own lite into an. They become magic circles that unify his works and his own life as he ex- presses it in them. Also, they produce in Ins wining har- monious relationships between earth and heaven, inattei and spirit, man and God. In his best works Emerson reproduces in miniature the circular order that he perceives in the univi-rsc. Ai the same time, he says that if man could see |>n>|K rly, hi- would need no works of art. Rather, he wuuld sec direrth Ihc laws and order of the universe. Thoreau. however, docs nut share this belief, he is by no means a "specific Emerson." On the contrary, in his writing his images of circularity help i reatc a self- contained universe in which he embodies higher, poetical truths which he believes ran unh lie revealed in works of art. Microfilm S3. 30: Xerography $11.50. 255 pages. THE DEPTH OF WALDEN: THOREAU'S SYMBOLISM OF THE DIVINE IN NATURE. (Order No. 67-12,196) William Donovan Drake, Ph.D. University of Arizona, 1967 Director: Paul Rosenblatt Henry David Thoreau accepted from his Transcendentalist contemporaries the idea that nature is the symbolism of a divine spirit, an idea ultimately derivative from the Platonism long integrated with Christian philosophy. Chapter I traces the idea of correspondences between natural facts and divine archetypes through the writings of the late Puritans, the Mathers and Edwards, who strove to adapt the new science and its concomitant philosophy (Locke's) to Puritan theology. The result was a concept of nature-symbolism, in which sen- sory experience of natural things was the medium of awareness of divinity. A position remarkably like that of Emerson or Thoreau was arrived at in the previous century. The nature religion of the Transcendentalists is believed to have its roots in native attitudes of man's awareness of God in nature. The work of Emerson and Thoreau is viewed as a redefinition of the Puritan religious drive in terms acceptable in the more scientific and non-theological spirit of the nineteenth century. In Thoreau, this was an effort to combine the search for spiritual self-fulfillment with that of empirical observation of nature. As such, it embraced serums contradictions. Chapters II, III, and IV trace Thoreau's philosophy through his early Journal and A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers to Walden . An analysis of the Journal reveals that Thoreau faced the problem of harmonizing Ihc inner sense of the infinite soul at peace with itself, with the "actual" world of process, conflict, and social institutions. A documented study is presented of Thoreau's attempt to annihilate time and space and transmute sense experience to the subjective dimen- sion, while seeking a realization of the divine in the facts of nature. He believed that nature was the innocent and un- troubled embodiment of the divine spirit, and identified him- self with natural creatures rather than with the "diseased" and conflict -ridden institutions of men. This neatly suited his emotional makeup, for he discovered he could rope with dis- turbing human relationships by rising to a detached overview and reaffirming his innocence through identification with nature. He conceived his role to be that of an essentially passive hero-poet-priest, a medium through which the word- less insight of divinity could be transformed into words for men to read. In A Week, he strove to combine the ideal and eternal in- sights in a narrative of actual experience. Somewhat unsuc- cessfully, it aims to portray the heroic role of the mythic poet-priest. Struggling to hold the two worlds of the "actual" and the "ideal" in balance, he concludes with the hope that the divine may someday be experienced directly through the senses as physical things are, rather than by elusive wordless inti- mations. Walden reports his attempt to live a life of spiritual ful- fillment in actual lact. The book was begun as a series of essays continuing the themes of A Week . Walden Pond was a symbol of the ideal part of the self, pure, isolated from con- tamination, and perpetually restorative of the innocence he deeply craved. The manuscript was virtually completed in 1849, but was extensively revised before 1854 by the addition of the cyclical pattern of the seasons. In the interim, his idealism had suffered a nearly fatal crisis, and the revised Walden depicts the freezing of the pond and the reduction of his earlier certainty to a mere hope of eventual attainment. The sources of the crisis are found in the conflicts inherent in his philosophy, and particularly in the personal weaknesses he had rationalized in his idea of divinity. The innocent, un- conscious, and childlike existence of nature failed as a life for man. Microfilm S3. 00; Xerography $10.35. 228 pages. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BALDEN : A GENETIC TEXT Orel. V Ronald Earl f'lappn pi, |> University nl Calif.,, ;,,., | Chairman: Profess, .> 1 .,-,,„ it , .« ,, ,i The familial- image ,,| ||, ,., , Thure.iu h:is been that of an eccentric lover of woodrhucks anil skunk- cabbage who. in brag- ging his way through Walden. w.is ri lalivrly unaware of the more tragic aspects of human rxpc rii-m ■ tli.il wrinkled the brows of Hawthorne and Melville Hut behind the mask of the self-reliant narrator of Walden liri allied .i man of flesh and blood who was deeply involvi d in I In- dollbls .ind tensions of his age. The Genetic Text provides ., , umpli-tr- transcript of the additions, cancellations, and revisions . oulained In the seven manuscript versions of Walden iml hares the development of Thoreau's masterpiece from Ihc turn hi lefl the pond in 1847 until just before he prepared the c npy (,,i ihc printer in 1854 During those years Thoreau matured far beyond the confines of Emerson's Transcendental optimism and achieved a rich intellectual and poetic subtlety and complexity not far from that of Hawthorne and Melville: what had tH-guil .is a fairly straight- forward account of his life in tin- woods rmm July 4, 1845, to September 6, 1847, became by the lime ol its publication a remarkably suggestive book thai reflec led the intellectual problems of its age. Many of the book's inronsisi. m ii s ran l>c traced to a dif- ference in their periods ol composition. The desire to make his life one of innocence ami simplicity, in tune with Nature herself, which Thoreau expressed in much ol V. here I Lived, and What I Lived for' w.is , irrn .1 over rrum ihc original ver- sion, whereas the bulk ol Hit "Higher kiws" chapter, which expresses the contrasMn di Bin- !•• "nvi-rciime" Nature, or the animal in man that is "rep -ual, and perhaps cannot be wholly expelled," was nut «i bit n until the fifth version. Quite in contrast to the writer in Hie earlier versions who talked so much about himself, the i ouscious artist In the later versions tended to lose himsell in his material and allow his descriptions, especially llmse nl Ihi pond and the changing seasons, to take on a Buggesliveness that was lacking in much of the earlier material. Written in an age that w.is caught between two worlds—a dying Romanticism and a Naturalism waiting In be fathered by Darwin and Spencer--Walden hears I he scars of its author's attempt to reconcile his genuine love I Nature with his growing awareness of her indificreiiri In man. Rut it also bears the fruits of Its author's own intellectual and poetic maturity and his deepening sense of what it means In he involved in mankind Microfilm si 1. to Xerography S40 25. 894 pages. A NOTE ON JAPP'S LIFE OF THOREAU by Arthur G. Volkman First editions have no attraction for me per se. but occasionally I acquire one accidentally through purchase, forgetting to return a borrowed copy, and sometimes even by less genteel methods. Among these I have one (whether obtained by fair means or other- wise I know not), I prize above all the others, for the reason that will appear later. It is an "Authors Edition: From Advance Proof Sheets," of Thoreau : His Life and Aims , by H. A. Page, (pseudonym of A. H. Japp) , published in Boston by James R. Osgood ci Company, 1877. However, it is not its pedigree that endears it to me, but a short passage it contains. For many years I have been intrigued by the fact that Thoreau embraced the doctrine and preached the love of all life when such sentimentality was viewed indifferently. One particular paragraph in balden always attracted me: "I have looked after the wild stock of the town, which give a faithful herdsman a good deal of trouble by leaping fences; . . .1 have watered the red huckleberry, the sand cherry and the nettle-tree, the red pine and the black ash, the white grape and the yellow violet, which might have withered else in dry seasons." Similar affirm- ations of his creed are not rare throughout the Journal , and of the eighteen chapters in balden . three are devoted to it — Higher Laws, Brute Neigh- bors, and Winter Animals. All of the preceding is, of course, common knowledge, but getting back to the reason I value Page's book so highly. On page 225 is a sentence that reads: "Thoreau was saved from the 'modern curse of culture' by his innocent delights, and his reverence for all forms of life so stimulated." (Italics mine.) Thus it is apparent that while Thoreau practiced the philosophy of Reverence for Life, Page coined the phrase to describe both the principle and its precept to be popularized by the humanist Albert Schweitzer over half a century later. And though Thoreau did not notably minister to the ills of the flesh he was, as Emerson expressed it in his Biographical Sketch of Thoreau, ". . .a physician to the wounds of any soul." THOREAU AND MARCUS AURELIUS: A POSSIBLE BORROWING by Raymond P. Tripp, Jr. Early in his first chapter "Economy" Thoreau, explaining the real nature of his balden experience as opposed to its "actual history," writes that he was: . . .anxious to improve the nick of time and notch it on my stick too; to stand on the meeting of two eternities, the past and future, which is precisely the present moment; to toe that line.(l) The wordplay in this passage is doubtless Thoreau' s, but the phrase: on the meeting of two eternities , as well as the mingling of space and time, may have a classical source. Although Ethel Seybold does not include Marcus Aurelius in her "Index of Classical Quotations and Allusions, "(2) it seems extraordinary that Thoreau, as well read in the classics as he was, would have missed the famous stoic or failed to have been influenced by him. Indeed, reading in the Meditations , one is impressed by the number of balden "echoes," passages and statements about time, the necessity of living in the present, and of a pure and independent life. (3) In this particular instance, discussing the relative insignificance of the earth, Aurelius em- ploys the phrase: <TTi.-y/i7) tov a,iujros ,(4) the point or boundary between two eternities. Aurelius is, of course, making his own use of a late clas- , sical commonplace (5) that the world is a mere <5"rt^-/<7 or pun c turn in a vast universe. Certainly, Thoreau' s enthusiasm is a thing quite apart from the stoic emperor's world-weariness. But his phrase and its context suggest something more than coincidence. If Thoreau' s "meeting of two eternities" does echo Aurelius, then we have another instance of his creative adaptation of his sources. (6) University of Denver FOOTNOTES (1) Writings . II, 15. (2) Ethel Seybold, Thoreau. The Uuest and the Classics (New Haven, 1951), Appendix C, 124 -HI • (3) M. Ant., 2: U, 17; 3: 10; 4: 3, 17ff, 50; 5: 15, 19, — to point out but a few of the passages reminiscent of balden thoughts and phrases. U) M. Ant., 6: 36. (5) Cf. E. R. Dodds, Pagans and Christians In An Age of Anxiety (Cambridge, 1965), 7-8; and S. Sambursky, The Physical World of Late Antiquity (New York, 1962) . (6) Cf. L. V. Cady, "Thoreau" s Quotations From Confucian Books in balden," AL, XXXIII, 20- 32, where Cady illustrates Thoreau' s adapta- tion of primarily ethical matter to his own purposes. CYNTHIA DAVENPORT ON THOREAU' S ANCESTRY Mrs. Marcia Moss, Reference Liorarian at the Concord Free Public Library, has called to our attention the following letter written to F. B. Sanborn by Cynthia M. Davenport on April 23 of some unknown year, the manuscript of which is among the Sanborn papers in the Concord Free Public Library. The letter is reproduced with the kind permission of the trustees of the Concord Free Public Library. Mrs. Moss and I have inserted some identifications here and there within brackets. The letter raises some interesting questions about Thoreau family possessions. Can anyone identify for us the author of the letter, Cynthia M. Daven- port? Oddly enough, descendents of Ellen Sewall by the name of Davenport at one point lived in Colorado Springs, Colorado, but we have as yet been unable to find any connection between those Daven- ports and this one. Broadmoor April 23rd My dear Mr. Sanborn When I think of you I have quite a guilty feel- ing in regard to a promise of a photograph of a tankard which belonged to the Grandfather of Mrs. Thoreau, Col. ELisha Jones of Weston, Mass. I have not forgotten it but the Tankard is held oy a relative who is rather slow in her movements. I still hope to send it. To her husband the tankard came and to my father a silver sugar sifter. Col. Jones was Col. of the 3rd Middlesex Reg't which po- sition he lost when he was "True to the King." His sons all had provincial positions in Nova Scotia & Canada. One son, Israel Jones, Esq. (a real English title), was for forty years a Trustee of Wms [Wil- liams] College and Executor of his cousin, Ephraim Wms [Williams, the founder of Williams College] will. He surveyed the line (the first I think) between this country and Canada. Another son died in Virginia, was on the staff of Gen. Diracoe[?]. Ephraim was the first Canadian Council on Parli[a]- ment. The present Lt. Gov. of Nova Scotia is the descendent of his son Stephen who was an officer in the English army. The long and strong protest against the Revolution made by Col. Elisha Jones, his son- in-law Rev. Asa Dunbar and others of Weston is all told by [Samuel Adams] Drake [in his History of Middlesex County. Mass .. Boston, 1880, II, 499-500]. Mrs. Minot was in Williamstown and Mrs. Thoreau also at her brother Israel's house when he died at an advanced age just after a horseback ride to and from North Adams. When I was in Concord last summer I saw a silhou- ette of Mrs. Minot in the Historical rooms, [it is still in the Concord Antiquarian Society.] I have wished very much I could have some photos made of it. Do you think it would be permitted and is there someone — amateur or professional — I could ask in Concord to do it? I would be very glad to hear from you on this point and if there is anything I could do for you in return it will afford me great pleasure to do it. It may be a cousin who is now east will see you, Mrs. 0. S. Newell of Chicago. Mrs. Marble says Prof. E. Harlowe Russell is the present executor of the Thoreau letters. Do you think he has any different material or any more than you have had? There were old Bibles and it would be strange if there were no silver in the Thoreau house as Krs. Elisha Jones died in Keene, New Hampshire, at the house of her only daughter Krs. Dunbar. Mrs. Dunbar had 13 brothers. Je are still trying to find a silhouette or picture of some kind of Col. Elisha Jones. The house his son, Elisha, occupied is The Country Club now in Pittsfield, Mass. It will give me a great deal of pleasure to hear from you at your convenience. Very truly Cynthia M. Davenport Colorado Springs, Colo. NOTES AND 3IERE3S .... The reprint of the first 100 THOHEAU SOCIETY BUL- LETINS vri.ll be published by the Johnson Reprint Corp. (Ill 5th Ave, New York, H.Y. 10003) and the price will be 025. Inquiries as to the exact publication date and orders should be sent directly to them.. THOREAU SOCIETY BULLETINS 1-101 are also available on microfilm. The cost is ->3.50 for the entire series, These should be ordered from University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich. A8106. The following back issues of the bulletin are avail- able from the secretary for 25£ each: 12-13, 15, 21- 54, 56, 59-63, 65,66, 69, 70, 72-79, 81-23, 85-96, 98, 99, 101, 103-106. Bulletins 1-9 have been reprinted as a unit for 50£. Booklets 5, 8, 10, 1A, and 22 are available at 50£ each; Booklets 6, 7, and 16 at one dollar each. All other publications are out-of- print . Mr, Isaac J. Oelgart (21 Burr Ave., Kenpstead, H.Y. 11550) is establishing a "Thoreau book exchange" to "buy, sell, and exchange Thoreau itens." We are grieved to announce the death of Ira Hoover of Wilmington, Delavare on February A, 1969, at the age of 8A. Ira was one of the oldest and most faith- ful members of the Thoreau Society, making the jour- ney to Concord for the annual meeting year after year after year. For many years he was a member of the society's executive committee. Prof. George Hendrick (Graduate College, Univ. of 111. , Urbana 61S01) and Mr. John F. Pont in (Fern Lodge, Buxton Spa, Derbyshire, England) are collab- orating: on a critical study of Henry Salt, Thoreau' s English biographer, and would appreciate hearing from anyone who owns any Salt manuscripts. Mr. Alan Tennenbaum (1723 Bella Vista, Cincinnati, Ohio A5237), a high school junior, writes that he and his English class debated at length the passage in the "Conclusion" chapter of WALDEN which reads, "In view of the future or possible, we should live quite laxly and undefined in front, our outlines dim and misty on that side; as our shadows reveal an insen- sible perspiration toward the sun," and have found it difficult to interpret the phrase "as our shadows reveal an insensible perspiration toward the sun." Can anyone help him? We must confess we are at a loss to explain it. W. Stephen Thomas, director of the Rochester Mus- eum and Science Center in Rochester, New York, owns a carte-de-visite of the Rowse crayon portrait of Thoreau that obviously dates from the 1860's. It is stamped on the back "Warren's, 289 Washington Street, Boston, Mass." Sophia Thoreau, in a letter to Myron Benton of Amenia, Hew York, on June 19, 1862, said that she was arranging with I.E.Tilton, 161 Wash- ington St., Boston, Ilass." to sell reproductions of the Rowse crayon for 250. Was the demand for portraits of Thoreau so great then that several photographers started printing them? Does anyone know of the present location of one of the Tilton photographs or any other similar reprints of por- traits of Thoreau available in the 1860's? Robert Stowell (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch 1, Hew Zealand) asks: "In his description of the M usketa cuid , the boat he used on his 1839 trip, Thoreau describes the boat as being shaped like a fisherman's dory, fifteen feet long by 3i~ wide, and equipped with two sets of oars, two masts, and sails. My difficulty is in trying to picture such a small craft with two masts and sails to fit them. "My other question relates to Thoreau' s skill <5r experience in sailing. From an early age he seems to have rowed boats on the Assabet and Concord Riv- ers, yet in his Journal for July 29, 1851, he writes that sailing on salt water is a new experience for him, and the next day he mentions that he has learn- ed a number of nautical terns such as 'luff and •close-haul.' Both of these teims are very common- ly used by those who sail whether on fresh water or salt. It is somewhat puzzling considering how of- ten he traveled by water that Thoreau did not know these expressions. Does anyone have any additional information? Hospitality Magazine (310 W.9th St., Kansas City, Mo.) is selling an 8"xll" colored lithograph of Tho- reau' s "different drummer" quotation for 31.00. An article in the SATURDAY REVIEW for Jan. 11, 1969 (p. 122) describes Thoreau as on the lecture platform in 1368 — a pretty good trick. Albert Lovmes points out to us that the area around Thoreau Falls in the White Mountains has recently been designated as a "scenic Area" by the Forestry Service to give it special protection. Can anyone help us locate the present whereabouts of Sophia Thoreau' s copy of A Week once owned by the late Paul Lemperly of Cleveland? It is said to contain penciled in corrections. Raymond Borst of Auburn, H.Y. writes concerning the first appearance in print of the Rowse crayon of Thoreau (See Bulletin 106) that he has a copy of the 186,3_ imprint of EXCURSIONS that includes it and another that does/-not. Jim Winchell, a student in the experimental Fair- haven College of Western Wash. State College in Bellingham, Wash. , is teaching a seminar on Thoreau entitled "Thoreau Is Alive and Well, He Loves You, and He Sends His Regards," this quarter. Enrollment in the course was filled within three hours of the opening of registration. Arthur Williger of Chicago, 111., points out to us that Thoreau in his journal for 1837-1SA6 (I, A31) says, "Wordsworth, with very feeble talent, has not so great and admirable as unquestionable and persevering genius. Heroism, heroism is his word, — his thing." Thus Thoreau anticipated by a century the current hippie use of the phrase "his thing." And concerning the current college rebellions, several recent articles have pointed out that one of the earliest American college rebels on record was Thoreau' s maternal grandfather, Asa Dunbar, who in 1767 led a rebellion against the poor food served at Harvard, using as his motto, "Behold our butter stinketh."